Pages

Sunday, 18 May 2014

how do we eliminate doping in sport?


I wrote the following post as a guest-post for journalist Ollie Wiliams' great site Frontier Sports last year.  I thought I might update it based on the recent controversies surrounding bans for sprinters Tyson Gay and Asafa Powell.  

.....



With the ongoing issues in American professional sport, recent IAAF retroactive testing – and subsequent banning and ‘re-gifting’ of the sullied medals – as well as the high-profile positive tests - and subsequent bans - of the second and fourth-fastest 100m sprinters of all time in Tyson Gay and Asafa Powell, the never-ending battle between testers and dopers continues to dominate our world.

No matter the advances in testing, the doping battle remains in lock-step. The testers devise better testing technology at just about the same rate as athletes devise better strategies to avoid it. The headlines are no different now than when Victor Conte was relevant.
The names change (sometimes). The details change. But the headlines remain. For all the advances, for all the money spent, for all the words: we are treading water. At what point are we going to say, “That’s enough, this is not working. Anyone else have any ideas?”
Because, you know what? There are tons of folk out there with great ideas. But instead, we continue down the same path of Einsteinian Insanity. And with the coming onset of gene doping, it’s not going to get any easier.

So, how do we eliminate doping in sport?

I’ll tell you how: We can’t. Cheating is in our nature. Athletes are going to cheat.
In fact, “the idea of stimulating the body’s performance with all manner of concoctions is as old as mankind. The Inca chewed coca leaves to pep them up when doing strenuous work. Nordic warriors munched mushrooms before going into battle to dull the inevitable pain. Ancient Olympians chomped opium, among other things, to give them a competitive edge.” - The Economist, Q1 2012.

And not only has cheating been around since the inception of organized sport, it is actually hard-wired into us. 
In The (Honest) Truth About Dishonesty, behavioral psychologist Dan Ariely writes that despite thinking we are all honest, we in fact all cheat. We all lie. This doesn’t, though “stop us from thinking we’re wonderful, honest people. We’ve become very good at justifying our dishonest behaviors so that, at the end of the day, we feel good about who we are … cheating has less to do with personal gain than it does with self-perception.”

The problem is that anti-doping agencies don’t take into account this protective self-deception. Instead, they assume the athlete who cheats is a rational being that simply chooses to ignore the current code of conduct. You cannot control dishonesty with more stringent laws, improved policing, and increased deterrents, for the original decision is not a rational one.
I remember a famous Sports Illustrated expose in the 1990s that spoke of the difficulty:
A scenario, from a 1995 poll of 198 sprinters, swimmers, powerlifters and other assorted athletes, most of them US Olympians or aspiring Olympians:
You are offered a banned performance-enhancing substance, with two guarantees:
1) You will not be caught. 2) You will win.
Would you take the substance?
One hundred and ninety-five athletes said yes; three said no.
Scenario II: You are offered a banned performance-enhancing substance that comes with two guarantees:
1) You will not be caught. 2) You will win every competition you enter for the next five years, and then you will die from the side effects of the substance. Would you take it?
More than half the athletes said yes.

Add to this the societal pressures that often override personal choice in many poor and/or corrupt countries, and the entirely logical decision for some athletes to dope in search for a better life for themselves or their families, and it is easy to see why this battle remains at best a stalemate.


So maybe we need to formulate a new question. A better understanding of why athletes dope is necessary. A better understanding of effective deterrence is necessary. A better understanding of societal cynicism, corruption, and desperation is necessary.
In the meantime, what can we do better today? What steps can be taken immediately to close the gap between dopers and testers?

I will discuss three: 

1. Improve the testing

2. Change the penalty 
3. Involve the athletes

Improve the testing
There are two primary reasons why drug-testers are keeping up with the dopers right now: 1) improved testing technology, and 2) increased reliance on investigation and intelligence.
The advent of the biological passport and carbon isotope ratio testing is a significant advancement to the technology available to the testers. Problem is, they are both extremely expensive, and are not used often enough.
According to Alan Abrahamson: “The IAAF … authorized 97 such cutting-edge tests (CIR) last year; 35 were out-of- competition and turned up no positives; 62 were done in-meet, when ordinary tests would likely turn up nothing; nine of the 62 came back positive. Using the carbon-isotope test raised the return rate in track and field to 5.75 percent overall … and to 4.97 percent in cycling … The Thai Weightlifting Federation performed an out-of-competition test on 26 weightlifters; 25, or 96.2 percent, came back positive, according to the WADA report.

Also – drug-testing agencies are increasingly taking a proactive stance against doping, rather than the traditional reactive method of devising tests for drugs that are already found in the system. USADA alone has spent over $50m on anti-doping research in an attempt to predict the new drugs that tomorrow’s athletes may be taking.
But for all advancements in testing technology, it is the increased reliance on investigation and intelligence that shows the most promise going forward. It’s what brought down BALCO. Biogenesis. Armstrong. The Australian links with organized crime. And it promises to be the driver in bringing down any other organized ‘support’ networks that are frequented by doping athletes – professional and amateur alike, including - we can assume - the recent case with Tyson Gay, and his controversial short ban.
Because such things are investigated by government agencies, local and national policing departments, funding is much easier. But it is imperative that our national and international anti-doping agencies partner with these investigations.
Australia was the first country to standardize this in its anti-doping program in 2006. Many others are following suit -some going so far as to rely on law enforcement completely. Former USATF CEO Doug Logan has grown weary: “Regrettably, I now conclude we should give up this fight and bring the troops home. Leave the regulation of drugs to governments and their law enforcement auspices. Dismantle the drug constabulary, the ‘ah dahs’ of this world; USADA [US Anti Doping Agency], WADA [World Anti Doping Agency], and all the others.”

I personally feel a single, international anti-doping agency (such as WADA) that oversees all anti-doping efforts worldwide could streamline this process massively - opening up far more efficiency and increased funding.
Currently, anti-doping efforts are undertaken by at least 10 types of organization, including national anti-doping organizations, Olympic international federations, national federations, and national Olympic committees. Add to this the myriad anti-doping efforts of professional sports, and it seems like there are far too many players, with differing levels of expertise, interest, and scope.

A single world-wide organization would reduce or eliminate the number of potentially corrupt authorities, Agencies like the Russian lab responsible for testing at both last year’s IAAF World Championships and the recent Sochi Winter Olympic Games require protection from corruption - only possible if an independent authority was responsible for its business.
Clearly, Russian anti-doping efforts have been stepped up – RUSADA tested more athletes than any other national anti-doping agency in the world last year; more than three times as many as USADA in the United States – but if those responsible for the handling and testing of samples can be corrupted, all tests are for nought.
If we improve the testing, and continue down the path of investigation and intelligence, will that be enough to eradicate – or at least significantly diminish – doping? 

Probably not. 


We have to ask serious questions about why athletes dope, and whether bans are deterrence enough. 


If not, what can we do?

Change the penalty
First of all, let me get this out in the open: lifetime bans do not work. At least, not as a deterrent.

Yes - they punish the individual who cheated, but it is near-sighted; it is not helping the long-term fight. It is not a viable long-term strategy in eradicating doping in sport.
Even WADA president John Fahey is critical, stating that simply getting tough on the cheats serves to reinforce the code of silence within the sport. 

At the present moment, what sane athlete would come forward?


A perfect example is Dwain Chambers. Chambers can barely squeak out a living bouncing from small competition to small competition. His Diamond League ban has been lifted to an extent, but he has a total of zero sponsors. Meanwhile, those who take the traditional route of 'deny-deny-deny' come straight out of their ban and immediately into the high-profile and big-money Diamond League. What athlete in their right mind would help the authorities after seeing what has happened to Chambers?

Zero tolerance is a death penalty. It doesn’t work as a crime deterrent, and it doesn't work as a doping deterrent. The anti-doping leaders know this: Fahey – and Dick Pound before him – were both clear on this issue, feeling it would be counter-productive in the long term. Lifetime bans are, for one, too distant and too unlikely to merit much attention from an athlete, and for two, totally eliminate even the smallest chance of the banned athlete stepping forward to assist in the fight retroactively.

Instead, offer lenience to those athletes that choose to admit to their mistakes. Those who choose to help the ‘Ah Dahs’ in their efforts. After Chambers was caught, instead of playing the blame-game, or the denial-game, he chose to come forward. He provided information on his entire drug protocol. He named names, gave dates, drug details, clearance times, etc. He went into classrooms to warn children about the dangers of trying to cheat the system. He truly became a role model for thousands. Yes – his mistake was big, but what 22 year-old would turn down the chance at big money, fame, and sporting success when it lay there at their feet? According to the Sports Illustrated article – not many!

It’s a complex problem in a complex society. Rather than the overly reductionist and simplistic logic that many of sport’s leaders have publicized (thereby influencing thousands more), we need to acknowledge the difficulty of the process: commit to serious study of deterrence without being clouded by emotion.



Absolute purity is a fantasy.


The ultimate answer lies in education, communication and engagement with the athletes themselves. We all want the same thing – athletes, coaches, the public, and the testers: to believe once again in clean and fair competition. 

This is not a battle.

Involve the athletes
We need to better understand the conditions that produce athletes who dope, and this begins with the athletes themselves.
“You’ve pushed the responsibility of compliance solely onto the athlete, but you’ve never engaged the athlete in real dialogue about the best ways to address this problem. Don’t see us as the problem. See us as the solution! Engage!
“You have created rules without the input from a broad group of neither athletes nor an independent athletes’ association. You have created rules that facilitate your mission statement without consideration for the population you are testing. As a result, your tests suck and those you are trying to protect don’t appreciate the service you think you provide.” 
Adam Nelson

So – in Nelson’s spirit – I asked around. I asked a number of coaches and athletes why they think athletes used performance-enhancing drugs. A common response was voiced by Todd Hays – Olympic silver medallist, and now head coach of the United States women’s bobsled team: “The number one reason why athletes dope is because they assume all their competitors are doping”. 

I tend to agree.


This has been a catalyst for impressionable young athletes – and coaches – for decades. The tipping point for me was the words of Charlie Francis, who, in 1991 at the Dubin Inquiry into PED use in track and field in Canada (most famously Ben Johnson), stated that everyone was doping. In fact, doping was just “levelling the playing field”, and not doping would be akin to setting up your starting blocks a meter behind the line.

Problem is, this isn’t even close to being true. But an entire generation of young sprinters and coaches – not only in Canada, but worldwide – took his words as gospel, and so the defeatist-insecure, cheat-to-win mentality that still exists in track and field to some extent today was perpetuated.

It was the same argument given by Victor Conte to dozens of athletes in the 90s – convincing these young men and women that “everyone else was doing it”, and “they don’t test what we give you anyway”.
Increasingly though, a new generation is rising from the ashes of Francis, Johnson, BALCO et al, with a new belief. Many athletes – increasingly frustrated with their sport – are taking a more active role in education, direction, and perception.
A story of a loudmouth on a plane, relayed by American 400m runner DeeDee Trotter, chronicles this attitude:
“This guy was reading the newspaper and he said, ‘Oh, they’re all on drugs.’ I turned around and said, ‘Hey, excuse me, I’m sorry, but that’s not true. I’m a professional athlete and Olympic gold medallist, and I’m not on drugs. I’ve never even considered it.’ It really upset me that it’s perceived that way – that if she runs fast, then she’s on drugs. I hated that and I gave him a little attitude.”
Trotter has since created the Test Me, I’m Clean Foundation giving athletes an opportunity to defend themselves. You will see many athletes (including Olympic champion and 110m hurdles world record-holder Aries Merritt) compete  with white rubber bracelets on their wrists, emblazoned with their motto. Trotter explains: “It means that I am a clean athlete. I do this with hard work, honesty and honor. I don’t take any outside substances.”

Shot-putter Adam Nelson has spoken out against drug use, as he only just recently received his long-deserved gold medal from the 2004 Olympic Games in Athens, stolen from him by Yuriy Bilonog. The Ukrainian tested positive for a banned steroid via retroactive IOC re-testing that uncovered four other athletes who ‘won’ their medals unfairly.  
Nelson opines: “I don’t place blind faith in any one person. I research it. I also know my limitations. If I don’t understand a supplement, then I won’t take it.”

With the recent bans of Powell and Gay, and the apparent roles of their ‘support networks’, more and more athletes are starting to get the message that education is crucial. Blind faith in therapists, nutritionists, doctors, and even coaches is too risky a proposition. For a seemingly well-intentioned athlete like Gay (who was one of the first to raise his hand for the biological passport program in 2007), the risk of trusting someone new can be costly.
Others take an even more hard-line approach, and refuse to take any supplements at all. Sprinter Lauryn Williams for example, on my blog last year, said: “I just choose not to count on anyone but me.”

In 2001, an athlete I coached – American bobsledder Pavle Jovanovic – tested positive for nandrolone. Like many, prior to Pavle’s adverse finding, I assumed all athletes that were turning out positive nandrolone tests were dopers. 

Turns out, I was wrong. Turns out I was uneducated. 


Turns out, almost 20% of all supplements on the market at the time could have led to positive tests. 


Turns out, the supplement industry was one of the most unregulated industries in the world, to the extent that the most unscrupulous among them would often lace their products with pro-hormones in the race with other companies for consumer dollars. 


Turns out, that hundreds of athletes got burned this way – including Pavle – despite the best intentions of athlete and coach.


NGBs, IFs, and anti-doping authorities have clearly not done enough to educate the athletes. It has gotten better since 2001 – no doubt. But when Tyson Gay can go down for taking supplements given to him by an anti-aging ‘doctor’, clearly the educational initiatives are not working. How many more could have made the same mistake?

It’s one of the reasons why a group of athletes – led by Nelson – has begun a pseudo-union for athletes. Called the Track and Field Athletes Association, its primary roles involve educating the athletes, and helping to professionalize the sport.

Hopefully other athletes will get the message that success does not lie in the bottom of a syringe, or in a tube of cream. And hopefully, athletes, managers, and shoe companies can come together more proactively and make decisions together driven solely by what is best for the athlete. We need to stop rewarding coaches, managers, agents, and even countries that have repeatedly been involved with doping athletes and programs.


“As a federation, we were either ignorant, stupid or were avoiding the issue. Even today, coaches who had drug cases when they were athletes are earning a living. Athletes employ these coaches despite — or maybe because of — their drug- riddled past.” Doug Logan

Conclusion
What it really all comes down to is ethics and integrity.
The longer we are involved in sports, the more opportunities there will be to challenge our belief systems. We must hold strong to these beliefs, because chances are – if you’re good enough – someone may just make you an offer...



if you enjoyed this post, please share on Twitter or Facebook.  Thank you


67 comments:

  1. Really great article. Very well thought and articulated. I have some thoughts and some questions about it. Concerning athletes who inadvertently ingest some banned substances, it's really hard to find excuses for such a recklessness. There is 2 cases. Either the name of the banned substance appears on the label. Then it's unconceivable. Either you know what you're doing either you are immensely stupid. When I was 17, I just started T&F and didn't know anything about PED's. Someone gave me a supplement and told me that it would help me. The first thing I did is to watch the label. After some research, and there was no internet at that time I just bought a book with the list of forbidden substances, I found the supplement contained a form of stimulant. At 17 with no internet. So I see no excuse for Gay. He should get the full 2 years ban. At his place I would feel so embarassed by my own lack of professionalism, not to say stupidity, that I would ask a 4 year ban. It's a very serious professional fault.

    The other case is when the supplement is contaminated (the banned substance doesn't appear on the label). In that case I really wonder if the coach do his job. I mean his athlete go and see a doctor or a therapist that the coaching staff doesn't care. That seems really unreasonable. It's not very professional. Coaches should make it clear to their athlete. If you go and see someone else then you're not part of the training group anymore.

    I wonder why the ha Da's don't test those supplement or give the athletes the opportunity to send them there supplements to see if they are in accordance with the regulation. The ha Da's would publish a list of tested supplements that the athletes could take safely. That would save a lot of trouble. One should even think of an WADA certified supplements. The company would pay a WADA certification. It's a win-win-win situation, for the athletes, for the sports and for the company.

    Finally, the perceived "they're all cheating" is a little less important now than it used to be I think. At least in track and field. With the internet, a lot informations about athletes performance progression over the year are available. Their training program are also available to the public. We can even watch their work out. So when a young athlete ask me the question if they are all cheating, I can at least show them the difference in training volume of athletes that were on something during the 80's or 90's and some other high level athlete with a much lower volume of training. Even though that's not a definitive answer but just a hint, the difference so important that it make sense to them. Actually I was part of the people who thought that they were all cheating.


    PS : I hope Lauryn Williams will get the gold medal she deserve one day.

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. Ini berarti bahwa judi online tidak hanya sekedar bersenang-senang totojitu atau memainkan peran Anda tetapi juga menjadikannya permainan uang nyata. Berbicara tentang perjudian agen togel hongkong online ada berbagai jenis pasar yang dapat dibersihkan terutama di dalam Grup Bicara Singapura yang populer di kalangan pakar judi lxtoto online. Orang-orang yang bermain judi online yaitu ingin mendapatkan kemenangan 8togel online dan manfaat yang sama tetapi untuk mendapatkan semua yang benar-benar perlu mereka lakukan. Dan apa yang bisa dilakukan orang asing untuk lotus4d mendapatkan pijakan. Saat bermain game lotre online Anda harus mencoba untuk tidak bergaul dengan bandar togel singapore banyak angka yang muncul terlebih dahulu. Jika nanti Anda meletakkan utang yang keluar dalam beberapa hari eyang togel online mungkin sulit untuk memenangkan permainan judi bersatu. Saat ini banyak perusahaan judi berjudi keluaran togel. Jadi teruslah kehilangan pemain ini setiap kali dan bertaruh.

      Delete
  2. Well gee, the athletes on the plane said he's not doping and no athlete has ever lied about doping only to finally admit that they were using when the evidence became overwhelming so clearly that anecdote means something.

    Hint: sarcasm.

    The best way to combat doping in sports is to just legalize everything and be done with it. You'll never stop it so you might as well hold the all drug games and just move the fuck on.

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. We should do the same thing with corruption. Let's legalized it since it happens anyway. Ho wait I have a brilliant idea : what about legalizing murder too since it happens anyway no matter what we do. We tried for millenia but it's still there. Actually now I'm very inspired, I'm thinking about more that a couple of thing we should legalize since it will always exist. Thanks for sharing your well thought analysis.

      Delete
  3. Snap Fitness caters to its members through its flexible 24/7 operating system where the facility is available at any time regardless of individual schedules and time constraints.Best Parkour Gloves

    ReplyDelete
  4. Established in 2013 to provide exciting, effective design solutions. Since its inception, Globalwebsolution has grown considerably into a recognised brand design and digital marketing innovator. Rewarding our clients with compelling visual solutions that create value and recognition in their marketplace.
    Our Strategic approach to visual excellence and digital.

    ReplyDelete
  5. Sports require determination, delayed gratification, a toughening-up of the body. Sports can also teach how to work with a team, how to submit to authority, how to encourage those not as naturally gifted as others, how to hit hard. And they teach patience. Even time on the bench can be sanctifying.FUN88

    ReplyDelete
  6. Now that is the thing that I call an enormous blog. Flawlessly composed.
    ironman training schedule

    ReplyDelete
  7. I read your blog frequently and I just thought I’d say keep up the amazing work! dudoanbongda

    ReplyDelete
  8. On the off chance that you need to procure cash by wagering on your most loved sports, the initial step you have to take is to locate a physical or online sports book that permits wagering on your picked sports game.bong88

    ReplyDelete
  9. Thanks you very much for sharing these links. Will definitely check this out..
    S128

    ReplyDelete
  10. Beside sporting apparatuses and the types of gear referenced above, sports supplies incorporate vehicles.watch nfl games live

    ReplyDelete
  11. The real connection makes the real betting profitable not luck! This is huge business and the bookies are very precise. That’s why we are here, also precise and we share a REAL information for smaller price to precise number of people, we are fair to our clients, so we expect the same. This is serious business for serious players! Our offers and prices are bellow you can choose any of them.Visit: http://www.fixed-matches-here.com/

    ReplyDelete
  12. Ultrasports.TV is your new best friend and Top Sport Website in the Galaxy! News, Highlights, Live Comments, Live Scores, Live Streams, Fixtures and the best Odds on the net. We hope you enjoy it as much as we do.Visit: https://www.ultrasports.tv/

    ReplyDelete
  13. Create your own Flame lamp, the solution for hard to get Flame lamps. The advantage is that you only have to replace the G9 light, so always the beautiful Flame light. Due to the Halogen G9 lamp, the lamp is also dimmable.Create your own Flame lamp.Visit: https://www.lampenbazaar.nl/

    ReplyDelete
  14. Our main mission will be to advise you and to give preventive advice in the legal matters in which our specialization allows us thanks to our knowledge in the representation and defense of our clients before the courts and tribunals of all kinds.Visit: https://aa-abogados.com/

    ReplyDelete
  15. In b-ball, spilling and executing an appropriate lay-up are urgent. Tossing, getting and handling abilities are an unquestionable requirement in baseball and softball. softball pins

    ReplyDelete
  16. We offer high-quality predictions on football betting. So welcome to the world of sports predictions. Visit : http://www.fixed-matches-here.com/

    ReplyDelete
  17. Lichtbron Voor De Laagste Prijs Van Nederland · Zeer Snelle Levering Door Grote Voorraad.visit https://www.lampenbazaar.nl/

    ReplyDelete
  18. Watch NBA,NHL,MLB and NFL regular, playoff and final games online with the best HD videos on the net for free - #PlayOff Visit : http://www.playoffstream.com/

    ReplyDelete
  19. world cup football offers live sports, HD streams for both the home and away broadcasts of every televised US sporting event. Along with the NBA, MLB, NFL, NHL, MLS and college football and basketball games, you can stream major boxing matches and UFC fights Visit : http://www.worldcupfootball.me/

    ReplyDelete
  20. FBStreams aka Streams is new home of sports fans, watch your favorite team, player and all sports including NFL, NBA, NHL, and Tennis Sports HD Streams. Visit : https://www.fbstream.io/

    ReplyDelete
  21. Real Vipbox Buff Sports streaming, covering all major sports and events around the world. Online stream portal to watch sports streams in HD quality. Visit : https://vipbox.im/

    ReplyDelete
  22. VIPStand - web sports search engine, which helps you find quality sports streams over online. We mostly list VIP streams that can be stream over all the devices. Visit : https://www.vipstand.se/

    ReplyDelete
  23. worldcup stream offers sports live stream for free. You can watch almost all live sports stream here on pc or mobile. Sports hd stream available here for free. Visit : https://www.worldcupstream.me/

    ReplyDelete
  24. If you love sports you have come to the right place. We have all the live sport you will ever need. Come on and join thousands of others who have made this site their regular sports one-stop site. We cover all your sporting live streaming needs. Visit : http://olympicstreams.me/

    ReplyDelete
  25. There are hundreds of sports and millions of people play sport every day all around the world. Even more love to watch sport and here you can watch sport free online free on strike out. Visit : http://strikeout.nu/

    ReplyDelete
  26. Looking for the best sports streams? You found them on VIPBox TV! And even better you don’t need to register or install anything. Just click and watch! Visit : http://vipbox.live/

    ReplyDelete
  27. Hello sports fans. Your journey is over. You have found the sports paradise. Welcome to the home of live sports streams. VIP League search all over the world to bring you the best live sports streaming. You can find every sport here. Look at the schedule for all today’s games and more. Visit : http://vipleague.bz/

    ReplyDelete
  28. Watch VIPBox now for Motorsports streams including F1, Superbikes, NASCAR, Moto GP and more. Your search for Free Live Motorsports Online ends here. Visit http://vipboxtv.se/

    ReplyDelete
  29. VIPLeague - Watch Live Sports Streams free online, EPL, Serie A, Bundesliga, La Liga live football streaming, Live NFL NBA MLB NHL Rugby Motorsports and more. Visit https://www.vipleague.lc/

    ReplyDelete
  30. VIP Box Sports - Watch live free sport from the Premier League, live football streaming, Live NFL NBA, MLB, NHL streaming only on VIPBox sports. Visit https://www.viprow.net/

    ReplyDelete
  31. Many of the cost-free video clips overloading the Internet are actually presumed concerning mainstream, there are actually additionally an excellent package of free video recording clips published on the web through your traditional Internet personal MLB Stream. Visit http://strikeout.co/

    ReplyDelete
  32. it was a wonderful chance to visit this kind of site and I am happy to know. thank you so much for giving us a chance to have this opportunity.. what is nandrolone

    ReplyDelete
  33. In addition to the high-quality streams which are live in HD, the site also offers an in-game chat. This chat is a free bonus in addition to the HD-streams.Visit http://www.playoffstream.com/

    ReplyDelete
  34. Try our super fast streaming facility and you will be able to get the facility of stream2watch from anywhere and anytime.Visit http://www.worldcupfootball.me/

    ReplyDelete
  35. Wow i can say that this is another great article as expected of this blog.Bookmarked this site.. age of empires guide

    ReplyDelete
  36. Be that as it may, with ability to hold up to 20 or even 30 balls are required by groups in an increasingly proficient arrangement. 토토사이트

    ReplyDelete
  37. A few people take this betting in all respects calmly and use to wager their preferred companions and groups yet in the event that you truly need to do something uncommon or need to turn into a specialist sports handicapper at that point before going into a games betting arrangement, you ought to pursue some significant advances. latest betting

    ReplyDelete
  38. Idiotic and additionally trusting people at the same time can be an obstacle, on aged and also fully grown folk assembled also will follow a complication. Age and also embryonic concern together. expert betting tips

    ReplyDelete
  39. Looking for the best sports streams? You found them on VIPBox TV 365bong - ty le keo bong da truc tuyen - bongdalive tv

    ReplyDelete
  40. I needed to thank you for this incredible read!! I unquestionably adored each and every piece of it. I have you bookmarked your site to look at the new stuff you post. custom fight shorts

    ReplyDelete
  41. Individuals who put resources into sports treat it as another piece of their venture portfolio. With steady increases through a strong sports wagering framework,토토 increasing a normal of 2% every day on your bankroll isn't unfathomable.

    ReplyDelete
  42. Doping is not a recent talk. It's from a aged long before. You really revealed some important pints and clarifications here. The two sentences that have been touched me much that 'The doping battle remains in lock-step. And cheating is in our nature.' When self deception is on going- anti doping program probably less effective. In this elaborating content, you absolutely disclose many high valued views which can't be exposed in a few words. Finally I enjoyed the article very much and it's definitely very knowledgeable produces by the intelligent author. 토토사이트

    ReplyDelete
  43. Is it worth trying to stop doping in sports anymore? cplt20 2019 schedule

    ReplyDelete
  44. Thanks for taking the time to discuss that, I feel strongly about this and so really like getting to know more on this kind of field. Do you mind updating your blog post with additional insight? It should be really useful for all of us. situs judi online

    ReplyDelete
  45. The conventional betting organizations will have higher chances however they will likewise have more kinds of wagers that you can put. find new betting sites uk offers

    ReplyDelete
  46. Pretty good post. I just stumbled upon your blog and wanted to say that I have really enjoyed reading your blog posts. Any way I'll be subscribing to your feed and I hope you post again soon. Big thanks for the useful info. gloves

    ReplyDelete
  47. I would like to say that this blog really convinced me to do it! Thanks, very good post. https://tructiepbongda.vip/

    ReplyDelete
  48. I'm glad I found this web site, I couldn't find any knowledge on this matter prior to.Also operate a site and if you are ever interested in doing some visitor writing for me if possible feel free to let me know, im always look for people to check out my web site. situs judi online

    ReplyDelete
  49. Eliminating doping is not probably an easy task. There are many aspect evolve with this issue. But in this article I found many enlightening point to make our hope. Happy to learning about many anti-doping agency like WADA and other organization working hard to bring it a tolerance level. BTW you contributed a worldly educative issue. Much respect. 스포츠중계

    ReplyDelete
  50. It is a good site post without fail. Not too many people would actually, the way you just did. I am impressed that there is so much information about this subject that has been uncovered and you’ve defeated yourself this time, with so much quality. Good Works! 안전놀이터

    ReplyDelete
  51. Admiring the time and effort you put into your blog and detailed information you offer!.. 안전놀이터

    ReplyDelete
  52. Really a great addition. I have read this marvelous post. Thanks for sharing information about it. I really like that. Thanks so lot for your convene. pokerqq

    ReplyDelete
  53. I think this is one of the most significant information for me. And i’m glad reading your article. But should remark on some general things, The web site style is perfect, the articles is really great : D. Good job, cheers trực tiếp mu liverpool

    ReplyDelete
  54. Do you like being called rationally frail? I realize I don't! Maybe we Sports Psychologists should consider that?
    2019 Presidents Cup Golf Live Stream

    ReplyDelete
  55. This comment has been removed by the author.

    ReplyDelete
  56. I admire this article for the well-researched content and excellent wording. I got so involved in this material that I couldn’t stop reading. I am impressed with your work and skill. Thank you so much. https://bongdat.com

    ReplyDelete
  57. The benefits of sports offer people a way of life that is much more desirable. If you look at successful countries, like Australia, New Zealand, Germany, America, and even China, there is a feel of peace and freshness, and this is reflected by the great desire of people wanting to make them their migration and travel destinations.climber workout machine

    ReplyDelete
  58. Friend, this web site might be fabolous, i just like it. ทางเข้าUFABET

    ReplyDelete
  59. Thanks for another wonderful post. Where else could anybody get that type of info in such an ideal way of writing? 안전토토사이트

    ReplyDelete
  60. I am continually amazed by the amount of information available on this subject. What you presented was well researched and well worded in order to get your stand on this across to all your readers. 릴게임

    ReplyDelete
  61. Hey There. I found your blog using msn. This is a very well written article. I’ll be sure to bookmark it and come back to read more of your useful info. Thanks for the post. I’ll definitely return. แทงบอลออนไลน์

    ReplyDelete
  62. Very good written article. It will be supportive to anyone who utilizes it, including me. Keep doing what you are doing – can’r wait to read more posts. UFABET

    ReplyDelete
  63. Hey There. I found your blog using msn. This is a very well written article. I’ll be sure to bookmark it and come back to read more of your useful info. Presidents Cup 2019 Live Stream

    ReplyDelete
  64. This is a smart blog. I mean it. You have so much knowledge about this issue, and so much passion. You also know how to make people rally behind it, obviously from the responses.
    Presidents Cup 2019 Live

    ReplyDelete